Chronicle Egypt

25 January 2011: Countrywide protests are met with increasing violence from the police, Mubarak supporters and the security forces.

11 February 2011: After 18 days of protests with millions of demonstrators on the country’s streets and squares, the longtime dictator Hosni Mubarak steps down.

19 March 2011: In a referendum on the “Roadmap” the majority vote in favour of prompt parliamentary and presidential elections as well as a commission to draft a new constitution.

18 June 2011: Mohammed Morsi, the candidate from the Muslim Brotherhood, wins the presidential election. A year later Morsi appoints General Abdelfatah al-Sisi as his defence minister.

November 2012: Morsi issues a decree which extends his presidential powers. In response to this and the economic crisis, protests break out across the country.

30 June 2013: Millions of Egyptians take to the streets to protest against President Mohammed Morsi. The military gives him 48 hours to establish a national unity government.

3. July 2013: Abdelfatah al-Sisi ousts Morsi in a successful coup.

August 2013: Hundreds of Morsi supporters are killed in clashes with the military. Human rights organisations call it a massacre. Soon after, the Muslim Brotherhood is outlawed as a terrorist organisation.

May 2014: Abdelfatah al-Sisi is elected Egypt’s new president with 96.9% of the vote. International observers say the election is manipulated. Dissidents are arrested under an increasingly brutal crackdown.

June 2019: Sisi restricts press freedom and expands his security forces. Ex-President Mohammed Morsi dies in prison. Ex-President Hosni Mubarak has been living in freedom for several months after a judicial acquittal.